Are you facing mom bias at work?

By Nara Schoenberg @ The Chicago Tribune

Are you facing mom bias at work?

The owner of a Chicago-based consulting and research firm, Arin Reeves has a law degree, a doctorate in sociology and a client list that includes Fortune 500 companies.

But that wasn’t what an interviewer decided to focus on when considering her firm for a big project.

“Are you nervous about your brain?” the man asked Reeves, who was six months pregnant at the time. “Every time my wife has a child, I swear she’s gotten 10 percent dumber.”

The bias against moms in the workplace doesn’t get as much attention as sexual harassment or the glass ceiling, but it’s a widespread problem, according to experts and recent studies, which point to obstacles and penalties that fathers and people without children don’t experience.

In a 2007 study at Cornell University, students evaluating equivalent resumes rated mothers as less competent than women who weren’t mothers, recommended them for the job less frequently, and recommended starting salaries that were $11,000 lower.

Other research has shown that motherhood is associated with a 4 percent decrease in earnings per child, and a 2016 report by the Society of Women Engineers and the Center for WorkLife Law found that while almost 80 percent of male engineers surveyed said having children did not change their colleagues’ perceptions of their work commitment or competence, only 55 percent of female engineers said the same.

“We know how strong this bias is,” said Joan C. Williams, a distinguished professor at the University of California Hastings College of the Law and director of the Center for WorkLife Law. “It’s an order of magnitude stronger than glass-ceiling bias” or bias against women in the workplace. “It’s extraordinarily strong.”

In interviews with the Tribune, local women, most of whom said they didn’t want to be identified by name because they feared career fallout, described employers who seemed to assume that motherhood and a drop in career commitment go hand in hand. A Chicago real estate agent said that while she was on maternity leave at a former sales job, her commissions were cut drastically, even though she’d already landed the accounts and her assistant was handling the follow-up. At the time, she said, she was the No. 1 salesperson in the office, but her supervisors somehow convinced themselves that she wasn’t going to come back to work.

“I gave them no reason to believe that — except that I had a baby,” she said.

Another woman said she was in the running for a big promotion at work two months after she got married. That was when a vice president at her company told her that the candidates had been narrowed down to two people, her and a male employee, but he had a question that would influence the decision: Was she planning on having children anytime soon?

“I was shocked,” the woman said. She quit her job soon after. In her current job, she said, moms are appreciated and accommodated with policies such as flexible work hours.

It’s not illegal to ask a female employee if she plans to have children, according to Cynthia Calvert, a senior adviser at the Center for WorkLife Law, but it would likely violate sex discrimination laws if an employer asked only female employees about their plans to have children, or made personnel decisions based on the answer.  In addition, some cities, including Chicago, prohibit making employment decisions based on parental status.

On average, women do reduce work hours, at least temporarily, after having kids, according to a 2014 report by UMass Amherst sociology professor Michelle Budig. But by Budig’s calculations, the reduction in work hours only account for about one-third of the reduction in wages that women experience when they have kids. Similarly, men do, on average, increase their work hours after becoming dads, but that only accounts for at most 16 percent of the earnings increase associated with becoming a dad.

Even when factors such as reduced hours and seniority are taken into account, fatherhood is associated with an increase in earnings of over 6 percent, while motherhood is tied to a 4 percent decrease in earnings per child, according to Budig’s research.

Reeves, who advises companies on how to achieve inclusion and maximize the potential of women and minorities, says the “baby brain” comment was the most blatant example of mom bias that she’s personally experienced.

In that case, she responded directly to the question.

“I’m not worried about my brain, but I am worried about yours,” she said. “Because the fact that you think you’re qualified to measure exact increases and decreases in IQ in any correlation with childbirth concerns me greatly. So let’s talk about that. What was the evidence (you used) to reach that conclusion?”

“I was just being sarcastic,” the man said.

Reeves didn’t expect to get the job after that exchange, she didn’t and she was OK with that: “I’d rather stand up to him and miss an assignment than wonder if anyone’s ever going to stand up to him.”

Experts say that mom bias is tough to address for a range of reasons, among them that it’s built into the deeply held assumption that the ideal employee — male or female — has no family responsibilities and is always available for work. Mothers fare particularly poorly when judged against that standard, but anyone caring for an ill relative will take a hit.

“The entire workplace is designed as an affirmative action program for people without daily caregiving responsibilities,” Williams says.

Kristin Rowe-Finkbeiner, executive director of the advocacy group MomsRising, is excited about growing support for measures such as paycheck transparency laws, which seek to ensure the salary is determined by the job, not the employee’s gender or parental status. The Paycheck Fairness Act has passed both the House and the Senate, she said, although not yet in the same session.

“Passing policies like paid family leave, access to affordable child care, access to health care, those are critically important too, and those polices are on fire,” Rowe-Finkbeiner said. “We just did exit polling in this presidential election, and we saw massive support by Democrats and Republicans alike for these policies.”

Reeves said she does see progress, but it’s coming slowly.

“Unfortunately, like a lot of things with gender equity, it takes women figuring out how to do it in spite of the barriers for the barriers to slowly come down,” she said. “There are a lot of women who have scorch marks all over their bodies from blazing trails, and now we can say there are paths available.”

nschoenberg@chicagotribune.com

 

Copyright (c) 2017 Chicago Tribune

Think Smarter. Lead Better.

  • Peace is not unity in similarity but unity in diversity, in the comparison and conciliation of differences.

    Mikhail Gorbachev
  • Diversity: the art of thinking independently together.

    Malcolm Forbes
  • The measure of intelligence is the ability to change.

    Albert Einstein
  • Difference of opinion is helpful in religion.

    Thomas Jefferson
  • Human salvation lies in the hands of the creatively maladjusted.

    Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • Controversial' as we all know, is often a euphemism for 'interesting and intelligent.

    Kevin Smith
  • One must even beware of too much certainty that the answer to life's problems can only be found in one way and that all must agree to search for light in the same way and cannot find it in any other way.

    Eleanor Roosevelt
  • Our ability to reach unity in diversity will be the beauty and the test of our civilisation.

    Mahatma Gandhi
  • Strength lies in differences, not in similarities.

    Stephen R. Covey
  • The test of a first-rate intelligence is the ability to hold two opposed ideas in the mind at the same time, and still retain the ability to function.

    F. Scott Fitzgerald
  • Your assumptions are your windows on the world. Scrub them off every once in a while, or the light won't come in.

    Isaac Asimov
  • Honest difference of views and honest debate are not disunity.They are the vital process of policy among free men.

    Herbert Hoover
  • Diversity and independence are important because the best collective decisions are the product of disagreement and contest, not consensus or compromise.

    James Surowiecki
  • The biggest mistake is believing there is one right way to listen, to talk, to have a conversation -- or a relationship.

    Deborah Tannen
  • America has believed that in differentiation, not in uniformity, lies the path of progress. It acted on this belief; it has advanced human happiness, and it has prospered.

    Louis D. Brandeis
  • Wit lies in recognizing the resemblance among things which differ and the difference between things which are alike.

    Madame De Stael
  • Honest difference of views and honest debate are not disunity. They are the vital process of policy among free men.

    Herbert Hoover
  • When we lose the right to be different, we lose the privilege to be free.

    Charles Evan Hughes
  • Diversity creates dimension in the world.

    Elizabeth Ann Lawless
  • In our work and in our living, we must recognize that difference is a reason for celebration and growth, rather than a reason for destruction.

    Audre Lorde
  • I not only use all the brains that I have, but all I can borrow.

    Woodrow Wilson
  • It is not that I'm so smart. But I stay with the questions much longer.

    Albert Einstein
  • Wide differences of opinion in matters of religious, political, and social belief must exist if conscience and intellect alike are not to be stunted, if there is to be room for healthy growth.

    Theodore Roosevelt
  • Freethinkers are those who are willing to use their minds without prejudice and without fearing to understand things that clash with their own customs, privileges, or beliefs.

    Leo Tolstoy
  • To effectively communicate, we must realize that we are all different in the way we perceive the world and use this understanding as a guide to our communication with others.

    Tony Robbins
  • Where all think alike, no one thinks very much.

    Walter Lippmann
  • Differences challenge assumptions.

    Anne Wilson Schaef
  • There never were in the world two opinions alike, no more than two hairs or two grains; the most universal quality is diversity.

    Michel de Montaigne
  • Strength lies in differences, not in similarities.

    Stephen R. Covey